A window to your brain

Eye and pupil movements are sensitive biomarkers for brain disorders affecting the visual and the oculomotor pathways. Precise measurement of these biomarkers can be very valuable for the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological disorders

Eye movements and pupillary function are sensitive biomarkers for neurological disorders affecting the visual and oculomotor pathways. Precise measurement of these biomarkers can be very valuable for the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis, brain tumors, stroke, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, and rare diseases including Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Niemann-Pick Type C.

Extraocular muscle control and pupillary function is complex and involves multiple brain areas, including the cerebellum, brainstem, cerebral cortex, and the basal ganglia. Because of this, oculomotor function can be affected by many different inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and rare diseases including:

See the neuroscience in action

Visual processing and oculomotor control involve large areas of the brain. Therefore, the majority of disorders of the central nervous system show visual signs or symptoms. The basic circuitry of visual- and oculomotor processing is well known - please find here some interesting studies and articles.

RAPD Study

Study shows great potential to automate quantitative pupillometric tests

Researchers at the University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, present an accurate, easy to use, and fast method to measure an Relative Afferent Pupillary Defects / RAPD. In contrast to today's clinical practice, the measures are quantitative and objective. 

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The lancet

Diagnosis and classification of optic neuritis -
The Lancet, Aug 2022

Accurate diagnosis of optic neuritis at presentation can facilitate the timely treatment of individuals with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. 

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european journal of neurology

Ocular motor study in patients with Niemann Pick disease Type C

Eye movement abnormalities are sensitive markers in neurodegenerative disorders. One such rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism is Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC), caused by a mutation in the NPC1 (95%) or NPC2 genes. 

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Frontiers in Neurology

Oculomotor and Vestibular Findings in Gaucher Disease Type 3 

This study shows neuronal degeneration of the brainstem and cerebellum with combined involvement of both supranuclear and nuclear oculomotor structures and the vestibular system in GD3.

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Bildschirmfoto 2023-11-06 um 10.24.10

The neuro-ophthalmology of multiple sclerosis

In this review we discuss the broad landscape of abnormalities that affect the afferent visual system and the ocular motor apparatus, and emphasise relevant features, the recognition and treatment of which are of importance to general neurological practice. The commonness of visual sensory and eye movement abnormalities in MS highlights the importance of understanding the principles addressed in this review. 

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the lancet - oncology

Presentation of childhood CNS tumours: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Suspicion of a CNS tumour is classically raised by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal deficits (including seizures), or papilloedema. Development of guidelines is needed for the identification and referral of children who might have a CNS tumour. We did a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to identify the clinical presentation of childhood CNS tumours to provide evidence to support the development of guidelines to assist with the identification and referral for imaging of children who might have a central nervous system tumour. 

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current opinion in ophthalmology

Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of cerebrovascular accidents

Ocular functions can be affected in almost any type of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) creating a burden on the patient and family and limiting functionality. The present review summarizes the different ocular outcomes after stroke, divided into three categories: vision, ocular motility, and visual perception. We also discuss interventions that have been proposed to help restore vision and perception after CVA.

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